[lang_fr]Sarah Vaughan: Biographie [/lang_fr][lang_en]Sarah Vaughan: Biography[/lang_en]

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Sarah Vaughan, chanteuse de jazz née le 27 mars 1924 à Newark dans le New Jersey et décédée à Hidden Hills en Californie, le 3 avril 1990.

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Biographie:

Née dans une famille aussi religieuse que musicienne, elle apprend le chant etl’harmonium dans un contexte religieux, au sein de l’Église baptiste.
Elle garde la double spécialité (chant et piano), jouant du piano dans l’orchestre de son lycée et chantant dans les chœurs à l’église ; elle se consacre au chant lorsqu’elle gagne le concours d’amateurs du théâtre de l’Appolo à Harlem, dix ans après Ella Fitzgerald qui vient la féliciter.
Elle rejoint l’ orchestre d’ Earl Hines puis l’ orchestre moderniste, qui introduit le Be Bop dans la musique de Big Band, de Billy Eckstine. Elle est notamment influencée par Charlie Parker et Dizzy Gillespie, alors membres de l’orchestre.

En décembre 1944, elle enregistre sous son nom une splendide version de « A Nignt in Tunisia » sous le nom d’ « Interlude » avec Charlie Parker et Dizzy Gillespie en sidemen de luxe.

En 1949, elle signe chez le label Columbia et y enregistre abondamment. Dans les années cinquante, elle alterne des faces plutôt commerciales avec grand orchestre pour Mecury et des faces accompagnés par de petites formations souvent de grande qualité comme celles de l’ album historique « With Clifford Brown » (1954).

En 1958, elle enregistre un album avec l’ orchestre de Count Basie, « No Count Sarah ».
Dans les années 60, sa voix perd légèrement en virtuosité mais gagne en profondeur comme le prouve sa formidable performance au Tivoli de Copenhague en 1963 ou celle au Monterey Jazz Festival en 1971 récemment publiée.
Elle enregistre au cours de ces années avec des orchestres synmphoniques. A partir de 1982, les enregistrements et concerts se font plus rares.

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Style:

Dotée de facultés extraordinaires, sa voix s’ étend sur plusieurs octaves. Sa parfaite maîtrise vocale lui permet toutes les prouesses, des sauts de registre d’ une rare amplitude aux modulations et dosages de volume tout aussi impressionnants.

Sa culture musicale, nourrie par le Be Bop, nourrissent ses improvisations d’ une grande invention harmonique et rythmique. Son style est aussi marqué par une utilisation brillante du vibrato.

Magnifique interprète de ballades, elle est aussi une chanteuse de scat extraordinaire. On ne lui connaît guère de rivale dans ce domaine, hormis Ella Fitzgerald.

Toutes ces qualités brillent particulièrement dans ses performances Live d’autant qu’ elle sait les mettre en scène avec humour, comme dans sa version de « Tenderly », enregistrèe au Tivoli en 1963.

Elle est souvent considérée, avec Ella Fitzgerald et Billie Holiday, comme l’une des trois plus grandes chanteuses de jazz.

Discographie:

1944 Sarah Vaughan and Her All-Stars (Continental Records)
1949 Sarah Vaughan in Hi-Fi
1954 Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown
1961 After Hours
1955 In the Land of Hi-Fi
1957 At Mister Kelly’s
1957 Swingin’ Easy
1957 Sarah Vaughan Sings George Gershwin
1957 No Count Sarah
1957 Sarah Vaughan Sings Great Songs From Hit Shows
1959 After Hours at the London House
1959 Vaughan and Violins
1961 Sarah + 2
1962 You’re Mine You
1963 Sarah Sings Soulfully
1963 Sarah Slightly Classical
1963 Sassy Swings the Tivoli
1963 Snowbound
1963 Vaughan With Voices
1964 Sweet ‘N’ Sassy
1964 The Lonely Hours
1965 ¡Viva! Vaughan
1965 Sarah Vaughan Sings the Mancini Songbook
1966 The New Scene
1967 Sassy Swings Again
1967 It’s A Man’s World
1971 Time in My Life
1972 With Michel Legrand
1972 Feelin’ Good
1973 Live in Japan
1974 Send in the Clowns
1977 I Love Brazil
1978 How Long Has This Been Going On?
1979 The Duke Ellington Songbook, Vol. 1
1979 The Duke Ellington Songbook, Vol. 2
1979 Copacabana
1981 Send in the Clowns
1981 Songs of the Beatles
1982 Crazy and Mixed Up
1982 Gershwin Live!
1984 The Mystery of Man (aka Let It Live, Sarah Vaughan Sings the Poetry of Pope John Paul II)
1987 Brazilian Romance
1989 Back on the Block

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Sarah Lois Vaughan (nicknamed « Sassy » and « The Divine One ») (March 27, 1924, Newark, New Jersey – April 3, 1990, Los Angeles, California) was an American jazz singer who has been described as ranking in the top echelon of female jazz singers.

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Early life:

Sarah Vaughan’s father, Asbury « Jake » Vaughan, was a carpenter and amateur guitarist. Her mother, Ada, was a laundress. Jake and Ada Vaughan migrated to Newark from Virginia during the First World War. Sarah was their only natural child, although in the 1960s they adopted Donna, the child of a woman who traveled on the road with Sarah Vaughan.

The Vaughans lived in a house on Newark’s Brunswick street for Sarah’s entire childhood. Jake Vaughan was deeply religious and the family was very active in the New Mount Zion Baptist Church on 186 Thomas Street. Sarah began piano lessons at the age of seven, sang in the church choir and occasionally played piano for rehearsals and services.

Vaughan developed an early love for popular music on records and the radio. In the 1930s, Newark had a very active live music scene and Vaughan frequently saw local and touring bands that played in the city at venues like the Montgomery Street Skating Rink, Adams Theatreand Proctor’s Theatre. By her mid-teens, Vaughan began venturing (illegally) into Newark’s night clubs and performing as a pianist and, occasionally, singer, most notably at the Piccadilly Club and the Newark Airport USO.

Vaughan initially attended Newark’s East Side High School, later transferring to Arts High, which had opened in 1931 as the United States first arts « magnet » high school. However, her nocturnal adventures as a performer began to overwhelm her academic pursuits and Vaughan dropped out of high school during her junior year to concentrate more fully on music. Around this time, Vaughan and her friends also began venturing across the Hudson River into New York City to hear big bands at Harlem’s Ballroom and Apollo Theatre.

Biographies of Vaughan frequently state that she was immediately thrust into stardom after a winning an Amateur Night performance at Harlem’s Apollo Theatre. In fact, the story that biographer Leslie Gourse relates seems to be a bit more complex. Vaughan was frequently accompanied by a friend, Doris Robinson, on her trips into New York City. Sometime in the Fall of 1942 (when Sarah was 18 years old), Vaughan suggested that Robinson enter the Apollo Amateur Night contest. Vaughan played piano accompaniment for Robinson, who won second prize. Vaughan later decided to go back and compete herself as a singer. Vaughan sang « Body and Soul » and won, although the exact date of her victorious Apollo performance is uncertain. The prize, as Vaughan recalled later to Marian McPartland, was $10 and the promise of a week’s engagement at the Apollo. After a considerable delay, Vaughan was contacted by the Apollo in the Spring of 1943 to open for Ella Fitzgerald.

Sometime during her week of performances at the Apollo, Vaughan was introduced to bandleader and pianist Earl Hines, although the exact details of that introduction are disputed. Singer Billy Eckstine, who was with Hines at the time, has been credited by Vaughan and others with hearing her at the Apollo and recommending her to Hines. Hines also claimed to have discovered her himself and offered her a job on the spot. Regardless, after a brief tryout at the Apollo, Hines officially replaced his existing female singer with Vaughan on April 4, 1943.

wgella1.jpgWith Earl Hines and Billy Eckstine: 1943 – 1944

Vaughan spent the remainder of 1943 and part of 1944 touring the country with the Earl Hines big band that also featured baritone Billy Eckstine. Vaughan was hired as a pianist, reputedly so Hines could hire her under the jurisdiction of the musicians’ union (American Federation of Musicians) rather than the singers union (American Guild of Variety Artists), but after Cliff Smalls joined the band as a trombonist and pianist, Sarah’s duties became limited exclusively to singing. This Earl Hines band is best remembered today as an incubator of bebop, as it included trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, saxophonist Charlie Parker(playing tenor saxophone rather than the alto saxophone that he would become famous with later) and trombonist Benny Green. Gillespie also arranged for the band, although a recording ban by the musicians union prevented the band from recording and preserving its sound and style for posterity.

Eckstine left the Hines band in late 1943 and formed his own big band with Gillespie leaving Hines to become the new band’s musical director. Parker came along too, and the Eckstine band over the next few years would host a startling cast of jazz talent: Miles Davis, Kenny Dorham, Art Blakey, Lucky Thompson, Gene Ammons, Dexter Gordon, among others.

Vaughan accepted Eckstine’s invitation to join his new band in 1944, giving her an opportunity to develop her musicianship with the seminal figures in this era of jazz. Eckstine’s band also afforded her first recording opportunity, a December 5, 1944 date that yielded the song « I’ll Wait and Pray » for the Deluxe label. That date led to critic and producer Leonard Feather to ask her to cut four sides under her own name later that month for the Continental label, backed by a septet that included Dizzy Gillespie and Georgie Auld.

Band pianist John Malachi is credited with giving Vaughan the moniker « Sassy », a nickname that matched her personality. Vaughan liked it and the name (and its shortened variant « Sass ») stuck with colleagues and, eventually, the press. In written communications, Vaughan often spelled it « Sassie ».
Vaughan officially left the Eckstine band in late 1944 to pursue a solo career, although she remained very close to Eckstine personally and recorded with him frequently throughout her life.

Early Solo Career: 1945 – 1948

Vaughan began her solo career in 1945 by freelancing in clubs on New York’s 52nd Street like the Three Deuces, the Famous Door, the Downbeat and the Onyx Club. Vaughan also hung around the Braddock Grill, next door to the Apollo Theatre in Harlem. On May 11, 1945, Vaughan recorded « Lover Man » for the Guild label with a quintet featuring Gillespie and Parker with Al Haig on piano, Curly Russell on double bass and Sid Catlett on drums. Later that month she went into the studio with a slightly different and larger Gillespie/Parker aggregation and recorded three more sides.

After being invited by violinist Stuff Smith to record the song « Time and Again » in October, Vaughan was offered a contract to record for the Musicraft label by owner Albert Marx, although she would not begin recording as a leader for Musicraft until May 7, 1946. In the intervening time, Vaughan made a handful of recordings for the Crown and Gotham labels and began performing regularly at Cafe Society Downtown, an integrated club in New York’s Sheridan Square.

While at Cafe Society, Vaughan became friends with trumpeter George Treadwell. Treadwell became Vaughan’s manager and she ultimately delegated to him most of the musical director responsibilities for her recording sessions, leaving her free to focus almost entirely on singing. Over the next few years, Treadwell also made significant positive changes in Vaughan’s stage appearance. Aside from an improved wardrobe and hair style, Vaughan had her teeth capped, eliminating an unsightly gap between her two front teeth.

Many of Vaughan’s 1946 Musicraft recordings became quite well-known among jazz aficionados and critics, including « If You Could See Me Now » (written and arranged by Tadd Dameron), « Don’t Blame Me », « I’ve Got a Crush on You », « Everything I Have is Yours » and « Body and Soul. » With Vaughan and Treadwell’s professional relationship on solid footing, the couple married on September 16, 1946.

Stardom and The Columbia Years: 1948 – 1953

The musicians union ban pushed Musicraft to the brink of bankruptcy and Vaughan used the missed royalty payments as an opportunity to sign with the larger Columbia record label. Following the settling of the legal issues, her chart successes continued with the charting of « Black Coffee » in the Summer of 1949. During her tenure at Columbia through 1953, Vaughan was steered almost exclusively to commercial pop ballads, a number of which had chart success: « That Lucky Old Sun », « Make Believe (You Are Glad When You’re Sorry) », « I’m Crazy to Love You », « Our Very Own », « I Love the Guy », « Thinking of You » (with pianist Bud Powell), « I Cried for You », « These Things I Offer You », « Vanity », « I Ran All the Way Home », « Saint or Sinner », « My Tormented Heart », and « Time », among others.

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Vaughan also achieved substantial critical acclaim. Vaughan won Esquire magazine’s New Star Award for 1947. Vaughan won awards from Down Beat magazine continuously from 1947 through 1952 and from Metronome magazine from 1948 through 1953. A handful of critics disliked her singing as being « over-stylized, » reflecting the heated controversies of the time over the new musical trends of the late 40’s. However the critical reception to the young singer was generally positive.

Recording and critical success led to numerous performing opportunities, packing clubs around the country almost continuously throughout the years of the late 1940s and early 1950s. In the Summer of 1949, Vaughan made her first appearance with a symphony orchestra in a benefit for the Philadelphia Orchestra entitled « 100 Men and a Girl. » Around this time, Chicago disk jockey Dave Garroway coined a second nickname for Vaughan, « The Divine One », that would follow her throughout her career. In 1951, Vaughan made her first tour of Europe.

With improving finances, in 1949 Vaughan and Treadwell purchased a three-story house on 21 Avon Avenue in Newark, occupying the top floor during their increasingly rare off-hours at home and relocating Vaughan’s parents to the lower two floors. However, the business pressures and personality conflicts lead to a cooling in the personal relationship between Treadwell and Vaughan. Treadwell hired a road manager to handle Vaughan’s touring needs and opened a management office in Manhattan so he could work with clients in addition to Vaughan.

Vaughan’s relationship with Columbia Records also soured as Vaughan became dissatisfied both with the commercial material she was required to record there and lackluster financial success of her records. A set of small group sides recorded in 1950 with Miles Davis and Benny Green are among the best of her career, but those were isolated moments in her Columbia ouvre. Frank Sinatra would face similar issues at the conclusion of his Columbia contract around the same time. As with Sinatra, Vaughan needed a change of setting that would give her talents the environment to fully blossom.

Vaughan’s recording success for Musicraft continued through 1947 and 1948. Her recording of « Tenderly » became an unexpected pop hit in late 1947. Her December 27, 1947 recording of « It’s Magic » (from the Doris Day film Romance on the High Seas) found chart success in early 1948. Her recording of « Nature Boy » from April 8, 1948 became a hit around the same time as the release of the famous Nat King Cole recording of the same song. Because of yet another recording ban by the musicians union, « Nature Boy » was recorded with an A Capella choir as the only accompaniment, adding an ethereal air to a song with a vaguely mystical lyric and melody.

The Mercury Years: 1954 – 1958

In 1953, Treadwell negotiated a unique contract for Vaughan with Mercury Records. Vaughan would record commercial material for the Mercury label and more jazz-oriented material for Mercury’s subsidiary EmArcy label. Vaughan was paired with producer Bob Shad and their excellent working relationship resulted in strong commercial and artistic success. Vaughan’s first recording session for Mercury was in February of 1954 and she stayed with the label through 1959. After a stint at Roulette Records from 1960 to 1963, Vaughan returned to Mercury for an additional time from 1964 to 1967.
Vaughan’s commercial success at Mercury began with « Make Yourself Comfortable », recorded in the Fall of 1954. Other hits followed, including: « How Important Can It Be » (with Count Basie), « Whatever Lola Wants », « The Banana Boat Song », « You Ought to Have A Wife » and « Misty ». Vaughan’s commercial success peaked in 1959 with « Broken Hearted Melody », a song she considered « corny », that nonetheless became her first gold record and a regular part of her concert repertoire for years to come. Vaughan was reunited with Billy Eckstine for a series of duet recordings in 1957 that yielded the hit « Passing Strangers ». Vaughan’s commercial recordings were handled by a number of different arrangers and conductors, the primary leaders being Hugo Peretti and Hal Mooney.

The jazz « track » of her recording career also proceeded apace, backed either by her working trio or various assemblages of illustrious jazz figures. One of her favorite albums of her whole career was an album recorded in December of 1954 featuring a sextet that included Clifford Brown. The album In the Land of Hi-Fi was recorded at a pair of October 1955 sessions featuring a 12-piece band that was led by Ernie Wilkins and included J.J. Johnson, Kai Winding, and Cannonball Adderley augmenting Vaughan’s working trio. In 1958 Vaughan recorded the album No Count Sarah with members of the Count Basie Orchestra, minus Basie, who was under contract with another record company.

Performances from this era often found Vaughan in the company of a veritable who’s who of jazz figures from the mid-1950s during a schedule of almost non-stop touring. Vaughan was featured at the first Newport Jazz Festival in the Summer of 1954 and would star in subsequent editions of that festival at Newport and in New York City for the remainder of her life. In the Fall of 1954, Vaughan performed at Carnegie Hall with the Count Basie Orchestra on a bill that also included Billie Holiday, Charlie Parker, Lester Young and the Modern Jazz Quartet. That autumn, Vaughan made another brief and highly successful tour of Europe. In early 1955, Vaughan set out on a « Big Show » tour, a grueling succession of start-studded one-nighters that included Count Basie, George Shearing, Errol Garner and Jimmy Rushing. In the 1955 New York Jazz Festival on Randalls Island, Vaughan shared the bill with the Dave Brubeck quartet, Horace Silver, Jimmy Smith, and the Johnny Richards Orchestra.

Although the professional relationship between Vaughan and Treadwell was quite successful through the 1950s, their personal relationship finally reached a breaking point at some time in 1958 and Vaughan filed for a divorce. Vaughan had entirely delegated financial matters to Treadwell, and despite stunning figures reported through the 1950s about Vaughan’s record sales and performance income, at the settlement Treadwell said that only $16,000 was left. The couple evenly divided that amount and the personal assets and terminated their business relationship.

The Sixties

The exit of Treadwell from Vaughan’s life was also precipitated by the entry of Clyde « C.B. » Atkins, a man of uncertain background that Vaughan met while while on tour in Chicago and married on September 4, 1958. Although Atkins had no experience in artist management or music, Vaughan wished to have a mixed professional/personal relationship like the one she had with Treadwell. Vaughan made Atkins her personal manager, although, she was still feeling the sting of the problems she had with Treadwell and initially kept a slightly closer eye on Atkins. Vaughan and Atkins moved into a house in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Vaughan’s contract with Mercury Records ended in late 1959 and she immediately signed on with Roulette Records, a small label owned by Morris Levy, one of the backers of the Birdland in New York where Vaughan had frequently appeared. Roulette’s roster also included Count Basie, Joe Williams, Dinah Washington, Lambert, Hendricks and Ross and Maynard Ferguson, among others.

Vaughan began recording for Roulette in April 1960, making a string of strong large ensemble albums arranged and/or conducted by Billy May, Jimmy Jones, Joe Reisman, Quincy Jones, Benny Carter, Lalo Schifrin and Gerald Wilson. Surprisingly, Vaughan also had some success in 1960 on the pop charts with « Serenata » on Roulette and a couple of residual tracks from her Mercury contract, « Eternally » and « You’re My Baby ». Vaughan made a pair of intimate vocal/guitar/double bass albums of jazz standards: After Hours (1961) with guitarist Mundell Lowe and double bassist George Duvivier and Sarah Plus Two (1962) with guitarist Barney Kessell and double bassist Joe Comfort.

Vaughan was incapable of having biological children, so in 1961 Vaughan and Atkins adopted a daughter, Debra Lois. However the relationship with Atkins was difficult and violent and Vaughan filed for divorce in November of 1963 after a series of strange incidents. Vaughan turned to two friends to help sort out the financial wreckage of the marriage: John « Preacher » Wells, a childhood acquaintance and club owner, and Clyde « Pumpkin » Golden, Jr. Wells and Golden found that Atkins’ gambling and profligate spending had put Vaughan around $150,000 in debt and the Englewood Cliffs house was ultimately seized by the IRS for nonpayment of taxes. Vaughan retained custody of the adopted child and Golden essentially took Atkins place as Vaughan’s manager and lover for the remainder of the decade.

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Around the time of her second divorce, she also became disenchanted with Roulette Records. Roulette’ finances were even more deceptive and opaque than usual in the record business and its recording artists often had little to show for their efforts other than some excellent records. When her contract with Roulette ended in 1963, Vaughan returned to the more familiar confines of Mercury Records. In the Summer of 1963, Vaughan went to Denmark with producer Quincy Jones to record four days of live performances with her trio that would be released on the album Sassy Swings the Tivoli that is an excellent example of Vaughan’s live show from this period. Vaughan made her first appearance at the White House for President Johnson in 1964.

Unfortunately, the Tivoli recording would be the brightest moment of her second stint with Mercury. Changing demographics and tastes in the 1960s left jazz artists with shrinking audiences and inappropriate material. While Vaughan retained a following large and loyal enough to maintain her performing career, the quality and quantity of her recorded output dwindled even as her voice darkened and her skill remained undiminished. At the conclusion of her Mercury deal in 1967 she was left without a recording contract for the remainder of the decade.

In 1969 Vaughan terminated her professional relationship with Golden and relocated to the west coast, settling first into a house near Benedict Canyon in Los Angeles and then into what would end up being her final home in Hidden Hills.

Rebirth in the Seventies

Vaughan met Marshall Fisher after a 1970 performance at a casino in Las Vegas and Fisher soon fell in to the familiar dual role as Vaughan’s lover and manager. Fisher was another man of uncertain background with no musical or entertainment business experience. However, unlike some of Vaughan’s earlier associates, he was a genuine fan of Vaughan’s and was devoted to furthering Vaughan’s career.

The seventies also heralded a rebirth in Vaughan’s recording activity. In 1971, Bob Shad, who had worked as a producer with Vaughan during her contract with Mercury Records, asked Vaughan to record for his new record label, Mainstream Records. Basie veteran Ernie Wilkins arranged and conducted her first Mainstream album, A Time In My Life in November 1971. In April of 1972, Vaughan recorded a collection of ballads written, arranged and conducted by Michel Legrand. Arrangers Legrand, Peter Matz, Jack Elliott and Allyn Ferguson teamed up for Vaughan’s third Mainstream album, Feelin’ Good. Vaughan also recorded Live in Japan, a live album in Tokyo with her trio in September of 1973.

During her sessions with Legrand, Bob Shad presented « Send In The Clowns », a Stephen Sondheim song from the Broadway musical A Little Night Music, to Vaughan for consideration. The song would become Vaughan’s signature, replacing the chestnut « Tenderly » that had been with her from the beginning of her solo career.

Unfortunately, Vaughan’s relationship with Mainstream soured in 1974, allegedly in a conflict precipitated by Fisher over an album cover photograph and/or unpaid royalties. This left Vaughan again without a recording contract for three years.
In December 1974, Vaughan played a private concert for the United States President Gerald Ford and French president Giscard d’Estaing during their summit on Martinique.

Also in 1974, conductor Michael Tilson Thomas asked Vaughan to participate in an all-Gershwin show he was planning for a guest appearance with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the Hollywood Bowl. The arrangements were by Marty Paich and the orchestra would be augmented by established jazz artists Dave Grusin on piano, Ray Brown on double bass, drummer Shelly Manne and saxophonists Bill Perkins and Pete Christlieb. The concert was a success and Thomas and Vaughan repeated the performance with Thomas’ home orchestra in Buffalo, New York, followed by appearances in 1975 and 1976 with symphony orchestras around the country. These performances fulfilled a long-held interest by Vaughan in working with symphonies and she made orchestra performances without Thomas for the remainder of the decade.

In 1977, Vaughan terminated her personal and professional relationship with Marshall Fisher. Although Fisher is occasionally referenced as Vaughan’s third husband, they were never legally married. Vaughan began a relationship with Waymond Reed, a trumpet player 16 years her junior who was playing with the Count Basie band. Reed joined her working trio as a musical director and trumpet player and became Vaughan’s third husband in 1978.
In 1977, Tom Guy, a young filmmaker and public TV producer, followed Vaughan around on tour, interviewing numerous artists speaking about Vaughan and capturing both concert and behind-the-scenes footage. The resulting sixteen hours of footage was pared down into an hour-and-a-half documentary, Listen To The Sun, that aired on September 21, 1978 on New Jersey Public Television, which was never commercially released.

In 1977 Norman Granz, who was also Ella Fitzgerald’s manager, signed Vaughan to his Pablo Records label. Vaughan had not had a recording contract for three years, although she recorded a 1977 album of Beatles songs with contemporary pop arrangements for the Atlantic Records label that was eventually released in 1981. Vaughan’s first release for Pablo was I Love Brazil, which was recorded with an all-star cast of Brazilian musicians in Rio de Janeiro in the fall of 1977 and led to a Grammy nomination.

The Pablo contract would ultimately result in five albums. In the Spring of 1978, Vaughan recorded How Long Has This Been Going On? with a quartet that included pianist Oscar Peterson, guitarist Joe Pass, double bassist Ray Brown, and drummer Louis Bellson. In the fall of 1979, Vaughan recorded material for two Duke Ellington Songbook albums. In the Spring of 1981, Vaughan recorded the album Send In The Clowns with the Count Basie orchestra playing arrangements primarily by Sammy Nestico and including a second recording of what had become her signature song. Her contract concluded in March of 1982 with Crazy and Mixed Up, another quartet album featuring Sir Roland Hanna on piano, Joe Pass on guitar, Andy Simpkins on double bass and Harold Jones on drums.

Vaughan and Waymond Reed divorced in 1981.

Late career

Vaughan remained quite active as a performer during the 1980s and began receiving awards recognizing her contribution to American music and status as an important elder stateswoman of Jazz. In the Summer of 1980, Vaughan received a plaque on 52nd Street outside the CBS building commemorating the jazz clubs she had once frequented on « Swing Street » and which had long since been demolished and replaced with office buildings.

A performance of her symphonic Gershwin program with the New Jersey Symphony in 1980 was broadcast on PBS and won her an Emmy Award in 1981 for « Individual Achievement – Special Class ». She was reunited with Michael Tilson Thomas for slightly modified version of the Gershwin program with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the CBS Records recording, Gershwin Live! won Vaughan the Grammy award for Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Female. In 1985 Vaughan received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1988 Vaughan was inducted into American Jazz Hall of Fame.

After the conclusion of her Pablo contract in 1982, Vaughan did only a limited amount studio recording. Vaughan made a guest appearance in 1984 on Barry Manilow’s 2:00 AM Paradise Cafe, an odd album of original pastiche compositions that featured a number of established jazz artists. In 1984 Vaughan participated in one of the more unusual projects of her career, The Planet is Alive, Let It Live a symphonic piece composed by Tito Fontana and Sante Palumbo on Italian translations of Polish poems by Karol Wytola, the future Pope John Paul II. The recording was made in Germany with an English translation by writer Gene Lees and was released by Lees on his own private label after the recording was turned down by the major labels. In 1986, Vaughn sang two songs, « Happy Talk » and « Bali Ha’i », in the role of Bloody Mary on an otherwise stiff studio recording by opera stars Kiri Te Kanawa and Jose Carreras of the score of the Broadway musical South Pacific, while sitting on the studio floor.

Vaughan’s final complete album was Brazilian Romance, produced and composed by Sergio Mendes and recorded primarily in the early part of 1987 in New York and Detroit. In 1988, Vaughan contributed vocals to an album of Christmas carols recorded by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir with the Utah Symphony Orchestra and sold in Hallmark Cards stores. In 1989, Quincy Jones’ album Back on the Block featured Vaughan in a brief scatting duet with Ella Fitzgerald. This was Vaughan’s final studio recording and, fittingly, it was Vaughan’s only formal studio recording with Fitzgerald in a career that had begun 46 years earlier opening for Fitzgerald at the Apollo.

Vaughan is featured in a number of video recordings from the 1980s. Sarah Vaughan Live from Monterrey was taped in 1983 or 1984 and featured her working trio with guest soloists. Sass and Brass was taped in 1986 in New Orleans and also features her working trio with guest soloists, including Dizzy Gillespie and Maynard Ferguson. Sarah Vaughan: The Divine One was featured in the American Masters series on PBS.

In 1989, Vaughan’s health began to decline, although she rarely betrayed any hints in her performances. Vaughan canceled a series of engagements in Europe in 1989 citing the need to seek treatment for arthritis in the hand, although she was able to complete a later series of performances in Japan. During a run at New York’s Blue Note jazz club in 1989, Vaughan received a diagnosis of lung cancer and was too ill to finish the final day of what would turn out to be her final series of public performances.

Vaughan returned to her home in California to begin chemotherapy and spent her final months alternating stays in the hospital and at home. Toward the end, Vaughan tired of the struggle and demanded to be taken home, where she passed away on the evening of April 3, 1990 while watching a television movie featuring her daughter.

Vaughan’s funeral was at the First Mount Zion Baptist Church in Newark, which was the same congregation she grew up in but which had relocated to a new building. Following the ceremony, a horse-drawn carriage transported her body to its final resting place in Glendale Cemetery in Bloomfield, New Jersey.

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Style and Influence

Although Vaughan is usually considered a « Jazz Singer, » she avoided classifying herself as such. Indeed, her approach to her « Jazz » work and her commercial « Pop » material was not radically different. Vaughan stuck throughout her career to the jazz-infused style of music that she came of age with, only rarely dabbling in rock-era styles that usually did not suit her unique vocal talents. Vaughan discussed the label in an 1982 interview for Down Beat:
« I don’t know why people call me a jazz singer, though I guess people associate me with jazz because I was raised in it, from way back. I’m not putting jazz down, but I’m not a jazz singer. Betty Bebop (Carter) is a jazz singer, because that’s all she does. I’ve even been called a blues singer. I’ve recorded all kinds of music, but (to them) I’m either a jazz singer or a blues singer. I can’t sing a blues – just a right-out blues – but I can put the blues in whatever I sing. I might sing ‘Send In the Clowns’ and I might stick a little bluesy part in it, or any song. What I want to do, music-wise, is all kinds of music that I like, and I like all kinds of music. »

While Vaughan was a proficient at scatting, the improvisatory aspect of her art was focused more on ornamentation, phrasing and variation on melodies, which were almost always jazz standards. Perhaps her most noticeable musical mannerism was the creative use of often widely « swooping » glissandi through her wide entire vocal range, which was most sonorous in a dark chest register that grew deeper as she aged. Vaughan approached her voice more as a melodic instrument than a vehicle for dramatic interpretation of lyrics, although the expressive qualities of her style did accentuate lyrical meaning and she would often find unique and memorable ways of articulating and coloring individual key words in a lyric.

During her childhood in the 30s, Vaughan was strongly attracted to the popular music of the day, much to the consternation of her deeply-religious father. Vaughan was certainly influenced by the gospel traditions that she grew up with in a Baptist church, but the more radically melismatic elements of those influences are less obvious than they would be in later generations of singers in the R&B and hip-hop genres. Vaughan was certainly influenced by (and an influence on) her friend and mentor, Billy Eckstine, which is obvious in the numerous duet recordings they made together. However, since there are no recordings of Vaughan prior to her joining Eckstine in the Earl Hines band (and, unfortunately, no recordings of her with the Hines band) it is difficult to know with any certainty what stylistic nuances she absorbed during the critical first years of her performing career.

Perhaps because of the individuality of her style, she has rarely been overtly imitated by subsequent generations of singers. Unlike other mid-century singers like Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra or, later, Aretha Franklin, there are no prominent singers whose style is an obvious direct reflection of Vaughan’s. However, even in death Vaughan retains a loyal following and attracts new fans through her recorded legacy, most of which remains in commercial release.

While Vaughan frequently performed and recorded with large ensembles, her live performances usually featured her accompanied by a piano-led working trio. The membership of this trio changed frequently over the years, although some of her « favorites » stayed with her for extended periods of time and often returned for multiple stints. Even in large-ensemble situations, this trio was often used as the rhythm section to provide continuity. Aside from economy, the trio configuration was flexible and adaptable to differing performing conditions and to Vaughan’s improvisatory whims. This minimal instrumentation also provided a minimum of distraction from Vaughan’s unique styling and rich vocal timbre.

Personal life:

Vaughan was married three times: George Treadwell (1946-1958), Clyde Atkins (1958-1961) and Waymond Reed (1978-1981). Being unable to have biological children, Vaughan adopted a baby girl (Debra Lois) in 1961. Debra worked in the 1980s and 1990s as an actress under the name Paris Vaughan.

Sarah Vaughan’s personal life was a jumble of paradoxes. She had a mercurial personality and could be extremely difficult to work with (especially in areas outside of music), but numerous fellow musicians recounted their experiences with her to be some of the best of their career. None of her marriages was successful, yet she maintained close long-running friendships with a number of male colleagues in the business and was devoted to her parents and adopted daughter. Despite effusive public acclaim, Vaughan was insecure and suffered from stage fright that was, at times, almost incapacitating. While shy and often aloof with strangers, she was quite gregarious and generous with friends.

Vaughan’s appetite for night life was legendary and after performances she regularly stayed out partying until well into the next day. Vaughan was a heavy drinker, but there are no reported incidents of obvious on-stage intoxication that hampered her ability to perform. Vaughan was, reputedly, a regular marijuana and cocaine user throughout her career, but she was apparently discreet about her usage and never suffered the debilitating addictions or run-ins with the law that derailed many of her colleagues. Vaughan was also a life-long smoker, which almost certainly contributed to her premature death from lung cancer at the age of 66.

References:

Much of the material can be referenced in Leslie Gourse’s biography of Vaughan, Sassy – The Life of Sarah Vaughan, first published in 1994 by Da Capo Press. Vaughan’s career crossed paths with many of the major figures in mid-20th century jazz and she is frequently mentioned in numerous biographies as well as most major books on jazz singing or women in jazz.

Selected albums:

Vaughan’s recorded extensively through all periods of her career and most recordings are of fairly high technical and artistic quality. While there are comprehensive box sets of her recordings for Mercury (1954 – 1959 and 1963 – 1967) and Musicraft (1946 – 1948), as of this writing there are only « greatest hits » collections of her work available from her Columbia (1948 – 1953) and Roulette (1960 – 1963) years. Some of her albums for Mainstream (1971-1974) have been issued on CD, but may be out of print or available on obscure labels.

Her later Pablo and CBS albums are available on individual disks in their original form. Her 1945 recordings with Parker and Gillespie are included in Charlie Parker collections. There are numerous collections of individual songs of varying technical quality and chronological coherence and buyers would be well advised to do research before investing in an unfamiliar collection. Following is a selected list of albums ordered by the date of release as a collection or as individual singles.

1944 Sarah Vaughan and Her All-Stars (Continental Records)
1949 Sarah Vaughan in Hi-Fi
1954 Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown
1961 After Hours
1955 In the Land of Hi-Fi
1957 At Mister Kelly’s
1957 Swingin’ Easy
1957 Sarah Vaughan Sings George Gershwin
1957 No Count Sarah
1957 Sarah Vaughan Sings Great Songs From Hit Shows
1959 After Hours at the London House
1959 Vaughan and Violins
1961 Sarah + 2
1962 You’re Mine You
1963 Sarah Sings Soulfully
1963 Sarah Slightly Classical
1963 Sassy Swings the Tivoli
1963 Snowbound
1963 Vaughan With Voices
1964 Sweet ‘N’ Sassy
1964 The Lonely Hours
1965 ¡Viva! Vaughan
1965 Sarah Vaughan Sings the Mancini Songbook
1966 The New Scene
1967 Sassy Swings Again
1967 It’s A Man’s World
1971 Time in My Life
1972 With Michel Legrand
1972 Feelin’ Good
1973 Live in Japan
1974 Send in the Clowns
1977 I Love Brazil
1978 How Long Has This Been Going On?
1979 The Duke Ellington Songbook, Vol. 1
1979 The Duke Ellington Songbook, Vol. 2
1979 Copacabana
1981 Send in the Clowns
1981 Songs of the Beatles
1982 Crazy and Mixed Up
1982 Gershwin Live!
1984 The Mystery of Man (aka Let It Live, Sarah Vaughan Sings the Poetry of Pope John Paul II)
1987 Brazilian Romance
1989 Back on the Block

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